A woman had been self-treating for head lice for 4 months, but the head lice and itching did not go away. Thinking that she had a case of insecticide resistant head lice, she collected insects with adhesive tape and took them to a physician. Upon inspection under low magnification, the samples resembled immature lice. Upon closer inspection, at higher magnification, it became obivous that the insects were not head lice, but a species of collembola (springtail). The doctor instructed the patient to cease head lice treatments and instead remove damp items and standing water from her residence.
Maria Rita Nasca, Francesco Lacarrubba, Giuseppe Micali. Collembola vs head lice: A puzzling case solved by videodermoscopy. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Volume 72, Issue 1, Supplement 1, January 2015, Pages S76-S77