Human head lice have become resistant to some insecticides and there is a need for new products. Products containing minerals have proved to be effective against head lice. Mineral oils act on the cuticle of soft bodied insects by dissolving and disrupting the waterproof coating resulting in desiccation of eggs and lice, or in some cases by entering and clogging spiracles, preventing oxygen exchange. Shampoos containing mineral oil can be effective in treating head lice.
Wolf L, Eertmans F, Wolf D, Rossel B, Adriaens E. (2016). Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156853.